Environment, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 43-50; DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11004 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11004

Comparative Study of the Efficiency of Coconut Fibre, Rice Husk, and Cotton Wool in the Absorption/Purification of Crude Oil Contaminated Water

Environment, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 43-50.

DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11004

Hong, A.H 1* , Burmamu, B.R 1 , Umaru, A.B 1 , Victor, A. L 1

1 Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Received: 4 December 2017; Accepted: 21 December 2017; Published: 19 January 2018

Download PDF | Views 353 | Download 212


The contamination and pollution of water sources by crude oil spillages from the activities of militants in the Niger Delta in Nigeria have seriously resulted in surface and ground water pollution rendering the water sources unfit for many domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. Comparative study was conducted to absorb/purify crude oil contaminated water samples using rice husk, cotton wool and coconut fibre as filter/absorbent materials. Sixteen grams of the materials were wrapped in a pouch and submerged into two set-ups labeled as: set up A for pure crude oil and set up B containing mixture of crude oil and seawater for one hour. The amount of crude oil absorbed/purified from each set up was recorded. The result showed that cotton wool had the highest amount of absorbed crude oil with volumes recorded in three trials as (232 ml, 300 ml and 189 ml), rice husk had the lowest amount of crude oil absorption of (78ml, 80ml and 89ml) in the set up containing pure crude oil. In the other set up containing mixture of seawater and crude oil, coconut fibre had the highest amount of absorbed crude oil with volumes of (124ml, 240ml and 233ml), followed by cotton wool with volumes of (124ml, 100ml and 150ml), rice husk absorbed the least volumes of (33ml, 100ml and 80ml) respectively. The mean absorption ability of Coconut fibre and Cotton wool proved the best in the absorption of pure crude oil and in the mixed state of crude oil and sea water. Analysis of variance of results between the amounts of absorbed crude oil by the materials in the two set-ups was significantly different. Coconut fibre and Cotton wool are hereby recommended as a first hand filtration/absorption and cleaning materials for use to purify crude oil contaminated water for local use prior to skimming and dispersion methods as these materials are locally available in the affected areas.


Water Pollution, Crude Oil Spillage, Water Purification, Rice Husk, Coconut Fibre, Cotton Wool


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Badejo and Nwilo (2008) Oil Spill Disaster Monotoring along Nigeria Coast line University of Lagos, Nigeria.
[2] Nwilo, P.C and Badejo (2005) Impact of Oil Spill along Nigerian Coast. The Association of Environmental Health and Sciences.
[3] Imobighe, M.D (2011) Paradox of Oil Wealth the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, How Sustainable is it for Natural Development. Journal of Sustainable Development 4 (6). Page 160 – 168.
[4] White, I.C (2010). Oil Spill Response- Experience, Trend and Challenges, Paper Presented at the SPILLCON, 8th International Oil Spill Conference, 15th – 17th August, 2010, Darwin, Australia.
[5] Anthony, W. S (1994). Absorption of Oil with Cotton Product and Kenaf. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 10 (3): 357 -361.
[6] Ryczkowski, A (2010). Absorbent Used by Professionals to Clean Up Oil Spills. Retrieved in May, 2017 from e – how: http://www..ehow.com /info_8070935_absorbent-clean-up-oil-spills-htm.
[7] Choi, H.M and Kwon, J.P (1993). Cotton Nonwoven as Oil Spill Clean – up in Sorbents. Textile Research Journal. 63 (4): 211 – 218.
[8] Zulfikar, M and Henri, B (2011). Method of Making Highly Absorbent and Flexible Cellulosic Pulp Fluff, USPATENT NO: 5387385.
[9] Vicoy, L.T and Germano, Z. J. C. (2012). A comparative Study of organic Waste materials as Crude Oil absorbers. Integrated Development School, MSU- Iligan Institute of Technology.
[10] Emilia, G, Wlodzimierz, K, Zbigniew, O, and Daria, T. (2016). Test of the Suitability of chosen Materials in terms of the use for removing Oil Spillage from water Environment. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2016.
[11] Peter, R.U, Idogun, A.K, Iriakuma, C.T, Aseminaso, A and Obamanu, T. (2016). A Novel Method for Adsorption Using Human Hair as Natural Oil Spill Sorbent. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. Vol. 7. Issue 8, August 2016.
[12] Gazali, A.K, Alkali, A.N, Mohammed, Y, Djauro, Y, Mohammed, D.D and Kodomi, M (2017). Environmental Impact of Produced water and Drilling waste Discharge from the Niger Delta Protroleum Industry. Journal of Engineering, Vol. 07, Issue 06, pp. 22-29.
[13] Rambabu, N, and Ravikumar, V. (2017). Experimental Investigation and Comparative Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Rice straw fiber composite. Journal of Engineering, Vol. 07, Issue 10, pp. 30 – 55.

Related Articles