Environment, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 43-50; DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11004 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11004

Comparative Study of the Efficiency of Coconut Fibre, Rice Husk, and Cotton Wool in the Absorption/Purification of Crude Oil Contaminated Water

Environment, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 43-50.

DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11004

Hong, A.H 1* , Burmamu, B.R 1 , Umaru, A.B 1 , Victor, A. L 1

1 Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Received: 4 December 2017; Accepted: 21 December 2017; Published: 19 January 2018

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Abstract

The contamination and pollution of water sources by crude oil spillages from the activities of militants in the Niger Delta in Nigeria have seriously resulted in surface and ground water pollution rendering the water sources unfit for many domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. Comparative study was conducted to absorb/purify crude oil contaminated water samples using rice husk, cotton wool and coconut fibre as filter/absorbent materials. Sixteen grams of the materials were wrapped in a pouch and submerged into two set-ups labeled as: set up A for pure crude oil and set up B containing mixture of crude oil and seawater for one hour. The amount of crude oil absorbed/purified from each set up was recorded. The result showed that cotton wool had the highest amount of absorbed crude oil with volumes recorded in three trials as (232 ml, 300 ml and 189 ml), rice husk had the lowest amount of crude oil absorption of (78ml, 80ml and 89ml) in the set up containing pure crude oil. In the other set up containing mixture of seawater and crude oil, coconut fibre had the highest amount of absorbed crude oil with volumes of (124ml, 240ml and 233ml), followed by cotton wool with volumes of (124ml, 100ml and 150ml), rice husk absorbed the least volumes of (33ml, 100ml and 80ml) respectively. The mean absorption ability of Coconut fibre and Cotton wool proved the best in the absorption of pure crude oil and in the mixed state of crude oil and sea water. Analysis of variance of results between the amounts of absorbed crude oil by the materials in the two set-ups was significantly different. Coconut fibre and Cotton wool are hereby recommended as a first hand filtration/absorption and cleaning materials for use to purify crude oil contaminated water for local use prior to skimming and dispersion methods as these materials are locally available in the affected areas.

Keywords

Water Pollution, Crude Oil Spillage, Water Purification, Rice Husk, Coconut Fibre, Cotton Wool

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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