Environment, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 51-62; DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11005 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11005

Heavy Metal Distribution and Contamination Index across Urban Land Uses in Ojo Area, Lagos State Nigeria

Environment, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 51-62.

DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2017.11005

Ogundele, F. O. 1* , Abalaka, L. D. 2 , Soyebo, E.A. 1

1 Department of Geography and Planning, Lagos State University, Nigeria

2 Department of Architecture, Kaduna State University Kafanchan Campus, Nigeria

Received: 25 December 2017; Accepted: 9 January 2018; Published: 20 February 2018

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The study assessed the concentration of Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Mn and Cr in soils and contamination index found in residential, agricultural, market, institutional, mechanic workshop and filling station in Ojo area Lagos State. Random sampling technique was employed to collect 12 surface soil samples (2 soil samples for each land use) using a soil auger and analysed using standard laboratory procedures. The study found that the contents of Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Mn and Cr were far below WHO permissible level as the land uses generated very low quantities of heavy metals. The order of metal concentration was Fe>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cr>Pb; which implied that Fe and Cu had increased concentrations, while the order of land use with increased heavy metal contamination in the soil was mechanic workshop>agricultural>market>residential>institutional>filling station. Positive and significant associations between heavy metals were found between Fe and Zn, Mn and Zn, Mn and Cu, Cr and Zn, Cr and Cu and Cr and Mn. Results of contamination factor of heavy metal indicated low contamination factor. Also, the degree of contamination indicated low degree of metal contamination, while the pollution index revealed absence of pollution concern in spite of the numerous human activities in the area. Based on the results, the study suggested that though, the respective land uses had low heavy metal level, the soils around agricultural area and mechanic workshop should be monitored to control the gradual buildup of metals in the soil; because the activities carried out in these two land uses had the potential of increasing the content of heavy metal in the soil.


Land Use Change, Contamination index, Heavy Metal, Ojo


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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