Environment, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Jun  2018, Pages 53-64; DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2018.22004 10.31058/j.envi.2018.22004

An Assessment of Ornamental Nursery Operation in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Environment, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Jun  2018, Pages 53-64.

DOI: 10.31058/j.envi.2018.22004

Nelson, I.U. 1 , Jacob, D.E 1*

1 Forestry and Natural Environmental Management Department, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

Received: 22 December 2017; Accepted: 20 July 2018; Published: 8 October 2018

Full-Text HTML | Download PDF | Views 2336 | Download 1402


This study assesses ornamental nursery operation and factors that influence gender composition variation among the operators in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data was collected using a structured administered to all the nursery operators in the study area being 42 operators. Descriptive statistics and ordinary least square regression were employed in analyzing the data collected. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents were male (66.67%), married (71.43%), literate (95.24%), between the age class of 25-54 years (85.77%), had been in operation for >6years (71.43%), acquired training in the operation (66.20%) and earned an annual income of ₦301,000-₦400,000 (47.62%). Also, majority of them obtain the seeds/cutting from mother trees (41.18%), preserved their seeds by drying (48.84%), used paid labor (68.89%), operated ornamental  nursery size of <0.05ha (88.10) and operated all year round (100%). The result of regression analysis showed that the factors accounted for 67.9% of the variation in gender composition in nursery operation and was significant at p<0.001. Age (-0.403, p<0.001), years in business (-0.209, p<0.05), income (2.751, p<0.05) and training in business (0.541, p<0.001) were the major determinants of gender variation. It is recommended that considering the annual income of the ornamental nursery operators, more people should be encouraged to venture into the business in other to expand the ornamental nursery sector in the state.


Ornamental Nursery, Gender, Silviculture


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


[1] Nelson, I.U.; Udo, E.S.; D.E. Jacob. Profitability of ornamental plant business in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Eurasian Journal of Forest Science, 2018, 5 (2), 35-43.

[2] Doldur, H. Production and Trade of the Cut Flower. Geogr. J. 2008; 6, 26-45.

[3] Adepoju, S. O.; Owonubi, A.; C. Nwadike. Economics of Ornamental Plant Seedlings in Jos Metropolis of Pleteau State. In: Adepoju, S. O and P. B. Okuneye (Eds), Technology and Agricultural Development in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 20th Annual National Conference of Farm Management Association of Nigeria held in Plateau State, 18th-21th September, 2006, 315-322

[4] Alberta Horticulture Industry Survey Report. Council of Alberta Horticultural Industries, Alberta, United States of America, 1994. Available online: www.utextension.uk.edu/hbin/greenimpact.html (accessed on 2 October 2015).

[5] Joshi, D.R. Urban Forestry, India: The Kathmandu Post, 1999, 33-38.

[6] Ajewole, O.I. Development Potentials of Urban Forestry for Sustainable Environmental Conservation of Lagos Metropolis. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 2001, 40.

[7] Afolayan, S.O.; Ogedengbe, J.J.; Idris, K.; Yaduma, B.A.; Shuaibu, S.M.; Muazu, Y.G. Horticulturing and Landscaping as Business Ventures. National Horticultural Research Institute, Bagauda, Kano. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 2012, 82, 18-20.

[8] National Population Commission (NPC). 2006 National Population Census Result: Legal Notice on the Details of the Breakdown of the National and State Provisional Totals. Printed and published by the Federal Government Printer, Lagos, Nigeria, 2007; FGP71/52007/2500(OL24)

[9] Akwa Ibom Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP). Office Records of Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, AKADEP Headquarters, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, 2006.

[10] Ekanem, E. Climate Characteristics, In: Usoro, E and Akpan, P. Akwa Ibom State- A Geographical Perspective, Enugu: Immaculate Publications Limited, 2010, 10-13.

[11] Peters, W.S.; Edet, R.; Okon E.U. AkwaIbom State the Land of Promise Compendium. Uyo: AkwaIbom State Government Press, 1994, 261-358.

[12] Gujarati, D.N; Porter, D.C. Basic Econometric: International Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2009, 541-581.

[13] Heubach K. Socio-Economic Importance of Non-timber Forest Products for Rural Livelihood in West Africa Savannah Ecosystems: Current Status and Future Trends. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, 2012, 1-153.

[14] Udeagha, A.U. Impact of Climate Change on the contributions of Irvingia fruits and kernels to Rural Household Economy in Cross River State. Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria, 2015, 175.

[15] Udo, E.S.; Nelson, I.U.; Udofia, S.I. Production and Marketing of Ornamental Plants in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Forestry, Environment and Sustainable Development 2015, 1(2), 10-23

[16] Larinde, S.L.; Ruth, S. Assessment of Small Scale Private Plant Nursery Enterprise in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology, 2014, 3(3), 301-311.

[17] Fakayode, B.S.; Adewumi, M.O.; Rahji, M.A.Y.; Jolaiya, J.A. Viability and Resource Use in Ornamental Plants Nursery Business in Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences, 2008, 6(4), 19-28.

[18] Muhammad-Lawal, A.; Adenuga, A. H.; Olatinwo, K. B.; Saadu, T. A. Economic Analysis of Floricultural Plants Production in Kwara State, North Central Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2012, 3(2), 373-380.

[19] Wozniak, G.D. Human Capital, Information and the Early Adoption of New Technology. Journal of Human Resources, 1987, 22, 101-112.

[20] Sadiq, M.S.; Yakasai, M.T.; Ahmad, M.M.; Lapkene, T.Y.; Mohammed, A. Profitability and Production Efficiency of Small-Scale Maize Production in Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Physics, 2013, 32(3), 19-23.

[21] Nelson, I.U. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Ornamental Plant and Production Marketing in AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Uyo, Nigeria, 2014, 187.

[22] Onyenweaku, C.E.; Igwe, K.C.; Mbanasaor, J.A. Application of a Stochastic Frontier Production Function to the Measurement of Technical Efficiency in Yam Production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Tropical Agriculture Research, 2005, 13(6), 20-25.

[23] Feder G.; Just, R.E.; Zilberman, D. Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A survey. Economic Development and Cultural Change 1985, 33(2), 255-98.

[24] Nwoboshi, L.C. Tropical Silviculture Principles and Techniques. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1982, 161-188

[25] Tekrony, D. M.; Egli, D. B. Relationship of Seed Vigour to Crop Yield a Review. Crop Science, 1991, 31, 816-822

[26] INNOTECH. Process Technology: Effecient and Effective Conservation of Fruits, Vegatables, Herbs Medicinal Plants and Spices, 2014. Available online: http://www.innotech-ing.de/Innotech/english/Processing.html (accessed on 27 September 2014).

[27] Singh, I. Small Farmers and Landlessness in South Asia: Monograph for the World Bank. South Asia: Academic Press, 1981, 102.

[28] Chaudry, M.G.; Gill, M.A.; Chaudry, G.M. Farm Size Productivity Relationship in Pakistans Agriculture in the Seventies. Society of Dev. Economists, Islamabad, 1985, May 12-14, 2p.

[29] Kapronczai, I.; Tomka, J. Cost, Price and Earnings Parameters in Large and Small Agricultural Enterprises. Eastren Europ. Econ. 1991, 30(2), 76-92.

[30] Thakur, D.R.; Moorti, T.V.; Sharma, H. R. Resource Use Farm Size and Returns to Scale on Tribal Farm of Himachal Pardesh. Agri. Situation in India, 1990; 44(11), 885-891.

[31] Iluyonade, O.N; Oladapo, M.O. Trend Analysis of Plantain/Banana Production in Nigeria (1980-1994). In: Adejoro, M. A. and Aiyelaagbe, I. O. (eds). Agricultural Development in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the Horticultural Society of Nigeria. Held in Kwara State, 10th-13th September, 1997, 11-16.

[32] Okafor, R. M.; M. A. C. A. Odii, C. A. Emeyonu; U. Obihi. Profitability Analysis of Poultry Production in Imo State, Nigeria. In: Adepoju, S. O and P. B. Okuneye (eds). Technology and Agricultural Development in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 20th Annual National Conference of Farm Management Association of Nigeria held in Plateau State, 18th-21th September, 2006, 392-397.

[33] Ekwere, G.E.; I.D. Edem. Evaluation of Agricultural Credit Facility in Agricultural Production and Rural Development. Global Journal of Human-Social Science, 2014; 14(3), 18-26.

[34] Asogwa, B. C.; O. Abu and G. E. Ochoche. Analysis of Peasant Farmers’ Access to Agricultural Credit in Benue State, Nigeria. British Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 2014, 4(10), 1525-1543.

[35] Omonona, B.T.; Lawal, J.O.; Oyinlana, A.O. Determinates of Credit Constraint Conditions and Production Efficiency among Farming Households in South Western Nigeria. Paper presented at the Joint 3rd African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) and 48th Agricultural Economist Association of South Africa (AEASA) conference held in Cape Town, South Africa, September 19th–23rd, 2010.

[36] SPGS. Chapter Eight: Tree Nurseries, 2014. Available online: http://www.sawlog.ug/downloads/Tree%20Nurseries.pdf (accessed on 27th September 2014).

[37] Schuch, U.K; Klein, G.J. Wholesale nursey surveys reveal inventory, customers and business practices. California Agriculture, 1996; 50(5), 16-21

[38] Anyanwu, J.C. Marital Status Household size and Poverty in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2009/2010 Survey Data. Working Paper Series N0 180 African Development Bank, Tunis Tunisia, 2013.

[39] Ermias M.; Ewmetu, Z.; Teketay D. Non-Timber Forest Products and Household Incomes in Bonga Forest area, Southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Forestry Research, 2014, 25(1), 215-223.

[40] Hwang, S.K.; S.W. Polachek. Occupational Self-Selection and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Korea and United States. A paper presented at the Labor Problems Conference at Academia Sinica in Taiwan, 2004, 46.

[41] Noponen, H. The Dynamics of Work and Survival for the Urban Poor: a Gender Analysis of Panel Data from Madras. Development and Change, 1991, 22(2).

[42] Mitra, A. Women in the Urban Informal Sector: Perpetuation of MeagreEarnings. Development and Change, 2005, 36 (2), 291-316.

Related Articles