Biological Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 19-28; DOI: 10.31058/j.bs.2018.21003 10.31058/j.bs.2018.21003

Bionomics of Sandflies (Diptera; Psycodidae) in Some Remote Communities in Ezinihitte Mbaise, South Eastern, Nigeria

, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 19-28.

DOI: 10.31058/j.bs.2018.21003

Chidinma A. Ikpeama 1 , Ifeanyi O. C. Obiajuru 2*

1 Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

2 Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

Received: 26 December 2017; Accepted: 25 January 2018; Published: 29 March 2018

Download PDF | Views 279 | Download 167

Abstract

Studies on the bionomics of sandflies (Diptera;Pyscodidae) were conducted in 9 remote communities in Ezinihitte Mbaise, south eastern Nigeria, between June 2013 and May 2014 to estimate the relative abundance, biting rate and spatial variation in the biting densities of sandflies. Sticky traps with lights and human baits were used to collect the sandflies. Sticky trap captures with light were carried out between 7.00 hrs and 21.00hrs once a month for a period of one year while fly catches using human baits were carried out between 07.00hrs and 19.00hrs twice a month for one year. A total of 2,793 flies were captured to estimate the seasonal relative abundance and calculate the biting rates. More flies (2,254) were caught during the rainy season accounting for 79.5% than during the dry season (974). The lowest peeks of 461 occurred in the dry season between November 2013 and February 2014. Sand flies were relatively absent during the months of December 2013 to February 2014, and a little number were obtained in November and December in 2 sites. There was a significant variation (p < 0.05) in the seasonal punctual and peripheral pattern of distribution. Seven hundred and eighty one biting sand flies were captured by 2 fly collectors from June 2013 to May 2014. A total annual biting rate of 11,877.7 was established. Daily biting cycle showed a peak during the late afternoons and evenings of the rainy season between 13.00hrs and 19.00hrs, the highest monthly biting rate (MBR) of 2,025 was recorded in June 2013. The study has established the existence and biting activities of Sand fly vectors of human leishmaniasis in Ezinihie Mbaise. The public health implications of the existence and biting activity of Sand flies are obvious. Constant global climatic change, may lead to outbreaks of some neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis. A timely intervention by Government and health care providers in the area will be of immense benefits saving the vulnerable population from possible infections and disease outbreak. An improved understanding of sandfly bionomics and ecology should facilitate the implementation of control strategies of sandflies vectors of leishmaniasis.

Keywords

Binomics, Sandflies, Vector – borne Diseases Remote Communities, Mbaise Nigeria

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

[1] Allexander, B. Sampling methods for Phlebotomine Sandflies. Med Vet Etomol. 2000, 14(2), 109-122.
[2] Avlad, Moncax A.; Faiman, R.; Kirstein, O.; Warburg, A. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus seyenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous Leishmaniesis in the Judean Desert. Plos Depl Trop. Dis. 2012, 6(7), 1725.
[3] Boakye, D.A.; Wilson, M.D.; Kweu, M. A Review of Leishmaniasis in West Africa. Ghnan Medical Journal, 2001, 94, 52-55.
[4] Cabanillas, M.R.; Castellon, E.G. Distribution of sandflies (Dpitera: Psychodidae) on Tree-trunks in a non-flodded area of the Ducke forest reserve, Mananus, AM, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Swaldo Cruz. 1999, 94(3), 289-296.
[5] Depaquit, Jérôme; Pesson, Bernard; Augot, Denis; Hamilton, James Gordon Campbell; Lawyer, Phillip; Léger, Nicole. Proceedings of the IX International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sandflies (ISOPS IX), Reims, France. June 28th–July 1st, 2016. EDP Sciences. 2016, 23(E1), 1-68.
[6] Galati, Eunice A.B.; Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Lawyer, Phillip; Léger, Nicole; Depaquit, Jérôme (2017). An illustrated guide for characters and terminology used in descriptions of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae). Parasite. 24: 26. doi:10.1051/parasite/2017027. ISSN 1252-607X. PMID 28730992.
[7] Hoel, D.F.; Butter, J.F.; Fawazl, E.U.; Watamyl, N.; El-Hossary, S.S.; Villins, J. (): Response of Phlebotomine Sandflies to light- emitting diod-modified light traps in southern Egypt J. Vector Ecol. 2007, 13, 302-307.
[8] Hogsehe, J.A.; hanafi, H.A.; Bermer U.R.; Kline, D.L.; Fawaz, E.Y.; Furman, B.D.; Hoel, D.F. Discovery of Diurial Resting sites of Phlebotomus Sandfiles in a village in Southern Egypt. Journal Am Mosg. Control Association, 2008, 24(6), 601-3.
[9] Kellick, R. Phlebotomine sandflies; Biology and control. World uess-Parasites. 2002, 4, 33-34.
[10] Kimutai, A.; Ngure, P.K.; Tonus, W.K.; Gicheru, M.M.; Nyamowamu, L.B. leishmaniasis in Northern and Western Africa: Review. African Journal of Infectious Disease, 2009, 3(1), 14-25.
[11] Lawyer, Phillip; Killick-Kendrick, Mireille; Rowland, Tobin; Rowton, Edgar; Volf, Petr. Laboratory colonization and mass rearing of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae). EDP Sciences. 2017, 24(42).
[12] Miller, G.C.; Kravuchenk, V.D.; Rybolove, L.; Beiver, J.C.; Schlein, Y. Characteristics of resting habitats of Adult Phlebotomus papatasis in Neot Hakikar, an oasis south of Dead Sea. Journal of Vector Ecol. 2011, 36, 5179-5186.
[13] Mon de Oca-Aguilar, A.C.; Moo-Llanes, D.; Rebablar-Tellez E.A. Adult sandfly species from Diurnal Resting Sites on the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Entomological News. 2013, 123(3), 191-200.
[14] Nwoke, B.E.B. Studies on the field epidemiology of human Onchoerciesis in Jos, Plateau, Nigeria Ph.D Dissertation. Unpublished University of Jos, Nigeria 1986, 343.
[15] Nwoke, B.E.B.; Onwuliri, C.O.E.; Ufomadu, G.O. Onchocerciosis in Plateau State Nigeria. Ecological background, local Disease Perception and Dynamics. Journal of Hygienic, Epidemiology Microbiology and Immunology, 1992, 2, 153-6.
[16] Orshal, Szekely, D.; Khalfa, Z.; B, Hon, S. Distribution and seasonality of Phlebotomus Sandflies in Cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, Judean Desert Israel. J. Med Entomol. 2010, 47, 319-328.
[17] Ready, P.C. Biology of Phlebotomine sandflies as vectors of disease agents: Annual Rev. Entomol. 2013, 58, 227-50.
[18] Rebelo, J.M.M.; Oliveria, S.T.; de, Silva, F.S.; Barros, V.L.L; Costa, J.M.L. Sandflies (Dipter: Psychodidae) of the Amazoma of Maranhao. V., Seasonal Occurrence in Ancient colourization Area and Endemic for cutaneous Leishmeniesis. Rev. Bras. Biol. 2001, 61(1).
[19] Setcliffe, J.F.; Mclver, S.B. Artificial feeding of simuliids (Simulium venustum): factors associated with probing and gorging. Experimentia, 1975, 31, 695-6.

Related Articles