Biological Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 19-28; DOI: 10.31058/ 10.31058/

Bionomics of Sandflies (Diptera; Psycodidae) in Some Remote Communities in Ezinihitte Mbaise, South Eastern, Nigeria

Biological Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 1, Feb  2018, Pages 19-28.

DOI: 10.31058/

Chidinma A. Ikpeama 1 , Ifeanyi O. C. Obiajuru 2*

1 Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

2 Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

Received: 26 December 2017; Accepted: 25 January 2018; Published: 29 March 2018

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Studies on the bionomics of sandflies (Diptera;Pyscodidae) were conducted in 9 remote communities in Ezinihitte Mbaise, south eastern Nigeria, between June 2013 and May 2014 to estimate the relative abundance, biting rate and spatial variation in the biting densities of sandflies. Sticky traps with lights and human baits were used to collect the sandflies. Sticky trap captures with light were carried out between 7.00 hrs and 21.00hrs once a month for a period of one year while fly catches using human baits were carried out between 07.00hrs and 19.00hrs twice a month for one year. A total of 2,793 flies were captured to estimate the seasonal relative abundance and calculate the biting rates. More flies (2,254) were caught during the rainy season accounting for 79.5% than during the dry season (974). The lowest peeks of 461 occurred in the dry season between November 2013 and February 2014. Sand flies were relatively absent during the months of December 2013 to February 2014, and a little number were obtained in November and December in 2 sites. There was a significant variation (p < 0.05) in the seasonal punctual and peripheral pattern of distribution. Seven hundred and eighty one biting sand flies were captured by 2 fly collectors from June 2013 to May 2014. A total annual biting rate of 11,877.7 was established. Daily biting cycle showed a peak during the late afternoons and evenings of the rainy season between 13.00hrs and 19.00hrs, the highest monthly biting rate (MBR) of 2,025 was recorded in June 2013. The study has established the existence and biting activities of Sand fly vectors of human leishmaniasis in Ezinihie Mbaise. The public health implications of the existence and biting activity of Sand flies are obvious. Constant global climatic change, may lead to outbreaks of some neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis. A timely intervention by Government and health care providers in the area will be of immense benefits saving the vulnerable population from possible infections and disease outbreak. An improved understanding of sandfly bionomics and ecology should facilitate the implementation of control strategies of sandflies vectors of leishmaniasis.


Binomics, Sandflies, Vector – borne Diseases Remote Communities, Mbaise Nigeria


© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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