Data Research, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 29-42; DOI: 10.31058/j.data.2017.11004 10.31058/j.data.2017.11004

Investigating the Cultivation Effect of Television Broadcasting and Online Media on Women, Beauty and Well-Being

Data Research, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Dec  2017, Pages 29-42.

DOI: 10.31058/j.data.2017.11004

Eiman Medhat Negm 1*

1 Media Management and Marketing, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport, College of Management and Technology, Alexandria, Egypt

Received: 20 December 2017; Accepted: 5 January 2018; Published: 16 January 2018

Download PDF | Views 439 | Download 263

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the cultivation effect of television broadcasting and online media on women, beauty and well-being in Egypt. This study used mixed research approach in a sequential manner. The first phase of this study seeks to identify the false social reality, which the media cultivates into actual society in regards to women physical appearance. The purpose in this section is to reveal how media (including western media) has cultivated the Arabs’ opinion of beauty and physical attractiveness. Five focus groups were conducted. Each group contained average of eight female participants of different age ranges. The second phase of this study assessed the cultivation theory impact of both the traditional and nontraditional media outlets - to find out the possibility of various media cultivating effect related to outlining and communicating messages on beauty and physical attractiveness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 384 female students, using consumers intercept data collection method. The findings indicated a strong relationship between television viewing and use of online media changes of the concept of social realities. Women who are heavy watchers of television and Internet, her concept of social realities will be changed. Thus, beauty ideals bursting in media is cultivating women’s thoughts and behaviors. The findings also showed that there is a strong relationship between use of online media and behavior intentions, which means if an individual is an intensive user of online media, she would intend to follow certain beauty tips read.

Keywords

Audience perception, Beauty, Body Image, Cultivation Theory, Mass Media, online Media, Physical attractiveness, Television Viewing

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

[1] Ansari, W.; Dibba, E.; Labeeb, S. Body Image Concern and its Correlates among Male and Female Undergraduate Students at Assuit University in Egypt. Glob J Health Sci. 2014, 6 (5), 105-117.
[2] Bryant, J.; Mirion, D. Theory and research in mass communication. Journal of Communication, 2004, 54(4), 662-704.
[3] Craike M.; Young J.A.; Symons C.M.; Pain M.D.; Harvey J.T.; Eime R.M.; Payne W.R. Trends in body image of adolescent females in metropolitan and non- metropolitan regions: a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health. 2016, 16(1), 1-9.
[4] Croucher, S.M. Social networking and cultural adaption: A Theoritcal Model. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication. 2011, 4 (4), 259-264.
[5] Dittmar, H.; Emma Halliwell; Emma Striling. Understanding the Impact of Thin Media Models on Women’s Body-Focused Affect: The Roles of thin-Ideal Internalization and Weight-Related Self-Discrepancy Activation in Experimental Exposure Effects. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2009, 28(1), 43-72.
[6] Etcoff, N.; Orbach, S.; D’Agostino, H.; Scott, J. The Real Truth About Beauty: A Global Report. The Global Study on Women, Beauty and Well-Being, 2004, 1-48.
[7] Ford, K.A.; Dolan, B.M.; Chris, E. Cultural Factors in the Eating Disorders: A Study of Body Shape Preferences of Arab Students. J Psychosom Res. 1990, 34(5), 501-507.
[8] Gerbner, G. Cultivation analysis: An overview. Mass Communication and Society, 1998, l(3-4), 175-194.
[9] Kerr, K.L. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Depression in Adolescent Girls. Priscilla Papers. 2010, 24(2), 21-22.
[10] Klein, Kendyl M. Why Dont I Look Like Her? The Impact of Social Media on Female Body Image. CMC Senior Theses. Paper 720, 2013. Available online: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/720 (accessed on 20 December 2017).
[11] Kotler, P.; Armstrong, G. Principles of marketing, 14th ed.; Pearson Prentice Hall, 2016.
[12] Lagnado, S. Getting real about beauty. Advertising Age, 2004, 75(49), 1-25.
[13] Lau, H.Y. Cultivation Effects of Television Broadcasting and Online Media. W.W.K. Ma et al. (eds.), New Media, Knowledge Practices and Multiliteracies, Springer Science Business Media Singapore, 2015.
[14] Miller, K. Communications theories: perspectives, processes, and contexts. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
[15] Mitchell, C.; Dinkha, J.; Kononova, A.; Rashwan, T.; Monica Matta, M. A Body of Dissatisfaction: A Study of the Effects of Media Imperialism in Kuwait. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2014, 2(1), 76-87.
[16] Morgan, M.; Shanahan, J.; Signorielli, N. Yesterday New Cultivation, Tomorrow. Mass Communication and Society, 2015, 18 (5), 674-699.
[17] Mosharafa, E. All you need to know about: The Cultivation Theory. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: A Arts & Humanities–Psychology, 2015, 15(8), 1-10.
[18] Potter, W. James. A critical analysis of cultivation theory. Journal of Communication, 2014, 64 (6), 1015-1036.
[19] Riddle, K. Cultivation Theory Revisited: The impact of childhood television viewing levels on social reality beliefs and construct accessibility in adulthood (Conference Papers). International Communication Association, 2009, 1-29.
[20] Rumsey, Nichola, and Diana Harcourt. The Oxford Handbook of the Psychology of Appearance. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. Print.
[21] Serdar, K. Female Body Image And The Mass Media: Perspectives On How Women Internalize The Ideal Beauty Standard. Westminister Academic Research Journal, Retrieved on November 1st, 2015. Available online: https://www.westminstercollege.edu/myriad/index.cfm?parent=2514&detail=4475&content=4795 (accessed on 20 December 2017).
[22] Shrum, L.J. Media Consumption and perceptions of social reality: Effects and underlying processes. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research, 3rd edition, New York: Psychology Press, 2009, 50-73.
[23] Shrum, L.J. The relationship of television viewing with attitude strength and extremity: implications for the cultivation effect. Media Psychology, 1999, 1(1), 3-25.
[24] Solomon, M. Consumer behaviour: buying, having, and being, 12th ed.; Prentice Hall PTR, 2016.

Related Articles