Applied Chemistry, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Jun  2018, Pages 13-22; DOI: 10.31058/j.ac.2018.11002 10.31058/j.ac.2018.11002

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Heavy Metals Analyses of Sarcocephalus Latifolius Leave Extract

Applied Chemistry, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Jun  2018, Pages 13-22.

DOI: 10.31058/j.ac.2018.11002

Ifeoma Maryjane Iloamaeke 1* , Ugochukwu Christian Umeobika 1 , Chioma Jane Francis Osuizuigbo 1 , Ikechukwu Johnson Ekwueme 1 , Chidinma Peace Okonkwo 1

1 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Received: 24 February 2018; Accepted: 10 March 2018; Published: 3 April 2018

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Abstract

Extraction of the leaves of Sarcocephalus latifolius was done using acetone, methanol, diethylether, petroleum ether, water and ethanol as solvent to analyze its phytochemical constituents followed by the quantitative analysis and antimicrobial property. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids (5.22%) in diethylether, petroleum ether and water extracts, saponins (18.2%) in methanol and water extracts, but trace amount in acetone, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts, tannins (0.63%) in water and ethanol extracts, glycosides (0.72%) in acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol, water and methanol extracts while steroids and flavonoids were absent. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of water and methanol extract was done using the agar well diffusion method against clinical isolates of gram positive bacteria (streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). The result of water extract showed higher inhibition potency than the methanol extract when compared with the positive control Ciprofloxacin. Heavy metal analysis was also conducted, the result indicated absence of chromium, lead, and arsenic, presence of zinc(0.18ppm), nickel(7.69ppm), manganese(2.21ppm), iron(1.36ppm),) and copper(0.1ppm). All were within W.H.O acceptable limit except nickel. This result concludes that the leaves of Sarcocephalus latifolius is medicinal as speculated by the orthodox medicine, but the heavy metals constituents of the plant should also be considered to avoid taking contaminated extract as medicine.

Keywords

Phytochemicals, Sarcocephalus Latifolius, Heavy Metals, Anti-Microbial

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors. Licensee International Technology and Science Press Limited. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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